Other than the Basque language what is known about pre-Indo-European languages that were spoken in Europe? Have any words from these languages survived to the present?

Today, the Basque language is spoken in a territory known as Baskonia (Basque Country between Spain and France) by more than one million inhabitants. Its use is very normalized in education and one can carry out university studies in that language. The Basque language is one of the few non-Indo-European languages in Europe and the only one in Western Europe.

It is also the only isolated language in Europe because it has no linguistic connection with any other language. As reflected in its lexicon and grammatical structure, its antiquity could reach back to the era of cave paintings dating from the Magdalenian period of the Upper Paleolithic (13,000 a.C.). Because of that, due to its connection with the languages of prehistoric Europe, the Basque language attracts the interest of linguists from all over the world. Baskonia (Basque Country) and its bordering territories are full of cave paintings that correspond to the period of transition from Paleolithic to Neolithic.

Neolithic period

Some examples of vocabulary:

Haitz = Rock, Stone

Haitz-kora = Ax

Haitz-toa = Knife

Azkona (Haitz-kon) = Arrow or small spear

Haitz-urra = Hoe

Zur = Wood

Zugaitz (Zur-haitz) = Tree (Wooden rock)

Har = Mountain

Harkaitz = Mountain’s rock

E = Rain

Ur = Water

Eur (E-ur, Euri) = Rainwater

Ekaitz (E-Haitz) = Storm

Lur = Land or ground

Elur = Rainland or Snow (What it means the snowy landscapes were very normal as it happened during the last glaciation when perpetual snows were located in Baskonia over 400 meters during the glacial period known as Younger Dryas (10,800 – 9,600 BC), when the story of human civilization as it is taught to us supossedly unfolds in this period)

Mar = Stripe, Stroke, Paint action, Color action

Margo (Mar-ko) = Color, Paint (It is very remarkable the fact that in the Paleo-Basque language there are no names for the colors green, orange, purple, etc. The colors are defined from basic paints. Green paint is made from blue and yellow, orange paint from red and yellow, etc., so green was called blue also and orange too was called red. This is something that is very strange and curious for a country like Baskonia that is now a country where highlights the wonderful green color of the vegetation that characterizes its landscape).

This means that, during the Upper Paleolithic, they were prehistoric settlers who inhabited in rock caves, those who gave the names to the colors.

The color was not identified with the color that their eyes saw but with the color of material that allowed reproducing the same color in cave paintings.

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